“Diagnosis” – the term comes from Greek – diagnosis, which means ‘recognize’. In psychology, this is the recognition of the individual, specific traits and characteristics of the personality, abilities, and functions of personality. This is the means to build whole-person characteristics.
Until the 20th Century, the term was linked primarily with clinical and diagnostic practice. The term itself is used widely in the sphere of Medicine and after that in Psychology. Later, around the Fifties, the term is used as a synonym of the detailed expertise and examination of separate objects and parts and it was used in other fields as well.
Psychodiagnostics is a part of the study of Applied Psychology, which is the study of personality in terms of psychological testing, tests development, psychometrics and research of personality traits and other psychological phenomena.
The subject of psychodiagnostics is the individual characteristics of the test subjects. Psychodiagnostics builds the theory, methodology, and principles of conducting psycho diagnostic research, interpreting the data and building a diagnostic conclusion.
Classification of the methods of psycho diagnostics:
- 1st Group: Objective testing (true-false). These are the cognitive tests primarily, as well as intelligence and abilities tests.
- 2nd Group: Standardized personality testing
- 3rd Group: Projective testing, which has a high value in psycho diagnostics, but is very dependent on the abilities of the psychotherapist
- 4th Group: Dialogue method – discussion or case solving
- 5th Group: Observation. This is included in all other methods and it is basic.
Psychodiagnostic research is focused on the individual and is made individually. Their main purpose is to give an answer on a specifically posed question.
This is the scheme of psycho diagnostics:
1- Clearly defined goal
2-Choice of adequate methodology
3-Quantification of the data
4- Analysis and interpretation of results
Psychodiagnostics is developed in several different spheres:
- The 1st is the same as the priorities of nowadays psychology and gives information about the diagnosis of illness and psychosocial development.
- The 2nd trend is based on the need for constant improvement, modifying and adaptation of already existing productive research methods.
- The 3rd trend is perfecting the means for standardization of the diagnostic tests and optimization of analysis of data, meaning – making the work with diagnostic methods easier.